We use a combination of field sampling and measurements and laboratory analyses and experiments. These include DNA/RNA co-extraction, quantification of 16S/18S rRNA and functional genes using qPCR, new-generation sequencing techniques, and long-term incubations with radiolabelled substrates.

We will be collecting samples at a number of sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet, including the accumulation zone. Glaciological and meteorological data will be provided by the PROMICE weather station network.